Conversion Calculator (2023)

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Use this Conversion Calculator to convert between commonly used units. Select the current unit in the left column, the desired unit in the right column, and enter a value in the left column to generate the resulting conversion. A full list of unit conversions is available at

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Different Systems of Units

Historically, many different systems of units have been used, where a system of units is defined as a collection of units of measurement with rules that relate them to each other. A unit of measurement is a defined magnitude of a quantity that it used as a standard for measurement for the same kind of quantity, such as measurements of length, weight, and volume.

In the past, many systems of measurement were defined on a local level, and could be based on factors as arbitrary as the length of a king's thumb. While this may work on a local level, when considering trade, as well as science, having systems of units based on units that others may not be able to relate to or understand makes interaction difficult. As such, the development of more universal and consistent systems developed over time. Today, some of the systems of units in use include the metric system, the imperial system, and the United States customary units.

The International System of Units (SI) is the standard metric system that is currently used, and consists of seven SI base units of length, mass, time, temperature, electric current, luminous intensity, and amount of substance. Although SI is used almost universally in science (including in the US), some countries such as the United States still use their own system of units. This is partly due to the substantial financial and cultural costs involved in changing a measurement system compared to the potential benefit of using a standardized system. Since US customary units (USC) are so entrenched in the United States, and SI is already used in most applications where standardization is important, everyday use of USC is still prevalent in the United States, and is unlikely to change. As such, many unit converters including this Conversion Calculator exist, and will continue to do so to ensure that people globally are able to communicate different measurements effectively.

History of the Pound

In the eighth and ninth centuries of the Common Era (CE), Arab civilization flourished in the Middle East and Spain. The Arabs used coins as a measurement of units of weight since a minted coin could not easily be cut or shaved to reduce its weight, and thus provided a measurable standard. They used a coin called a silver dirhem as a basic measure of weight, which had a weight roughly equivalent to 45 fully grown grains of barley. Ten dirhems comprised a Wukryeh, which was translated into Latin as an "uncia" – the origin of the word "ounce."

Over time, trade spread from the Mediterranean area to Europe, including the northern German City States. As a result, a pound, 16 ounces of silver, or 7200 grains, became a commonly used measure in many regions.

While England also adopted this measure, a shortage of silver caused King Offa to reduce the measurement of the pound to 5400 grains in order to use smaller coins. Eventually, when William the Conqueror became King of England, he retained the 5400-grain pound for minting coins, but reverted to the 7200-grain pound for other purposes.

Though many countries used the pound from that point onward, including England (the British pound sterling, or GBP was equal to one pound-weight of silver in King Offa's time), the avoirdupois weight system was adopted during the reign of Queen Elizabeth in the 16th century. It was a system based on the weight of coal, and its name was derived from the French phrase "avoir de pois" (goods of weight or property). The avoirdupois was equivalent to 7,000 grains, 256 drams of 27.344 grains each, or 16 ounces of 437 ½ grains each. Since 1959, the avoirdupois pound has been officially defined in most English-speaking countries as 0.45359237 kilograms.

Different systems of measurement also developed over time in Asian countries. For example, in ancient India, a measure of weight called the "Satamana" was used, and was equal to the weight of 100 gunja berries. In China, the first emperor Shi Huang Di created a system of weights and measures in the third century BCE (Before the Common Era). The measurement of weight was based on the shi, which was equivalent to approximately 132 pounds. The Chi and Zhang were units of length equivalent to approximately 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) and 3 meters (9.8 feet) respectively. The Chinese also developed a means to ensure accuracy through the use of a special size of bowl used for measurements that also made a specific sound when struck – if the sound was off pitch, the measurement was not accurate.

Brief History of the Metric System

In 1668, John Wilkins proposed a decimal system in which length, area, volume, and mass were linked to each other based on a pendulum that had a beat of one second as a base unit of length. In 1670, Gabriel Mouton proposed a decimal system that was instead based on the circumference of the earth, an idea supported by other prominent scientists of the time such as Jean Picard and Christiaan Huygens, but that did not take hold for approximately another 100 years.

By the mid-eighteenth century, it was clear to nations who traded and exchanged scientific ideas that standardization of weights and measures was necessary. In 1790, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord, the Prince of Talleyrand, approached the British (represented by John Riggs-Miller) and the Americans (represented by Thomas Jefferson) with proposals to define a common standard of length based on the length of a pendulum. In that same year, Thomas Jefferson, presented the "Plan for Establishing Uniformity in the Coinage, Weights, and Measures of the United States," which advocated for a decimal system in which units were related to each other by powers of ten. A committee that was formed in France comprised of some of the most prominent scientists of the day came to a similar conclusion, and also proposed a decimal system for all weights and measures. Although Congress considered Jefferson's report, it was not adopted. In Great Britain, John Riggs-Miller lost his British Parliamentary seat in the 1790 election. As such, the measurement system was only implemented in France, and in 1795, the metric system was formally defined in French law. It was not until 1799, however, that the metric system was officially adopted in France, though it was still not universally observed across the country.

The spread of the metric system did not occur quickly, and areas that were annexed by France during Napoleon's reign were the first to adopt the metric system. By 1875, two thirds of the European population, and nearly half the world's population had adopted the metric system. By 1920, the percentage of the world's population using the imperial system or the US customary system was ~22%, with 25% using mainly the metric system, and 53% using neither.

The International System of Units, currently the most widely used system of measurement, was published in 1960. It has been adopted by all developed countries except for the United States, though as previously mentioned, it is used in science, as well as heavily in the military, even in the US.


Conversion Calculator? ›

Measures can be converted. Use the basic conversion rule to solve any problem: from a larger unit to a smaller unit, multiply. From a smaller unit to a larger unit, divide. It's really that simple!

How do you calculate convert measurements? ›

Measures can be converted. Use the basic conversion rule to solve any problem: from a larger unit to a smaller unit, multiply. From a smaller unit to a larger unit, divide. It's really that simple!

How do I do a conversion? ›

The system is:
  1. Write the conversion as a fraction that equals 1.
  2. Multiply it out (leaving all units in the answer)
  3. Cancel any units that are both top and bottom.

What is the formula for conversion factor? ›

That is, conversion factor = (required yield)/(recipe yield) or conversion factor = what you NEED ÷ what you HAVE.

How do you convert units step by step? ›

Step #1: Identify the units used. Step #2: Determine the relationship between the units. Step #3: Determine the conversion factor (in fraction form). The denominator should have the same unit as the original measurement.

What is the conversion table? ›

: a table of equivalents for changing units of measure or weight into other units.

How do you convert between different units of measure? ›

Given a ratio relating two units, convert from one unit to another. To convert from one unit to another: Divide the given amount by the parts allocated to the unit being converted from. Multiply by the number of parts allocated to the unit being converted to.

How do you convert units within a measurement? ›

To convert units within a measurement system such as the US Measurement System, the current unit measurement is multiplied by the ratio the desired unit has with the current unit. For example, in order to convert inches into feet, the number of inches is multiplied by 1 / 12 since for each foot there are 12 inches.

What are 5 examples of conversion? ›

Examples of Conversion Factors
  • 1 gallon = 3.78541 liters (volume)
  • 1 pound = 16 ounces (mass)
  • 1 kilogram = 1,000 grams (mass)
  • 1 pound = 453.592 grams (mass)
  • 1 minute = 60000 milliseconds (time)
  • 1 square mile = 2.58999 square kilometers (area)
Jun 27, 2019

What is the rule for conversion? ›

Conversion is an intentional tort which occurs when a party takes the chattel property of another with the intent to deprive them of it. Conversion is not applicable to real property. For the purposes of conversion, “intent” merely means the objective to possess the property or exert property rights over it.

What is an example of conversion? ›

The company is undergoing a conversion to a new computer system. They have suggested conversion of the old school into apartments. Conversion to gas heating will continue over the next few years. a conversion from Catholicism to Judaism He is thinking about conversion to Buddhism.

Which of the following is an example of conversion? ›

The correct answer is Electric Fan. In electric fan Electric energy is converted into mechanical energy. Conversion of energy is the process of changing energy from one form to another.

What is a metric conversion chart? ›

What is a Metric Conversion Chart? A chart that includes all the fundamental units and their conversion, is the metric conversion chart. These fundamental metric units are mostly based on length, volume, time, weight, temperature and area.

How do you manually convert units? ›

Summary: to convert units, construct a fraction that is equal to 1, multiply the original measurement by that fraction, and simplify.

What are the three steps of conversion? ›

Someone has said that a committed Christian undergoes three conversions: “First to Christ, then to the church, and then back to the world.” We see an example in Acts 2 and 8. With their baptism, 3,000 people declared their conversion to Christ (2:41).

What is a conversion checklist? ›

A Conversion Checklist is a comprehensive guide that outlines all of the steps you need to take to optimize your website for conversions. It covers a range of topics, including website design, user experience, marketing, and analytics.

What is the first thing you should calculate when you are performing a conversion? ›


The first thing to remember when calculating conversion rate is to focus on getting eyes onto the particular webpage you're calculating a conversion rate for. By increasing the denominator in the conversion rate equation, you will in turn, by correlation, increase the numerator as well.

What is simple conversion? ›

: the transposing of the subject and predicate of a proposition without altering the quantity or quality. "no P is S" becomes "no S is P" by simple conversion.

What are the 4 types of conversion? ›

Direct Conversion 2. Parallel conversion 3. Modular Conversion 4. Phase-In Conversion.

What is number conversion? ›

As we know, the number system is a form of expressing the numbers. In number system conversion, we will study to convert a number of one base, to a number of another base. There are a variety of number systems such as binary numbers, decimal numbers, hexadecimal numbers, octal numbers, which can be exercised.

What are the two rules of conversion? ›

To be conversion, a taking of property must be without the owner's consent. There must be some act giving the taker some control over the object, though actual physical removal is not essential. The taking need not be malicious or even knowledgeable.

Why is conversion important? ›

Why is the conversion rate important? From a business standpoint, it is very important to know how many people are buying your product. Furthermore, it is important to know how many people are aware of your product, and how many of those people are convinced that your product is right for them.

What is the punishment for conversion? ›

Any forced conversion is punishable by three to five years imprisonment, and a fine of INR 25,000. In case an offender is a minor, woman or a member of scheduled caste or scheduled tribe, the penalty increase to three to ten years imprisonment, and a fine of INR 50,000.

What is a conversion answer? ›

Conversion is the act or process of changing something into a different state or form.

What is conversion process? ›

The conversion process searches for the first rule that matches the incoming data, and then applies the action associated with that rule. The output of that action can then be further processed by other rules, depending on its type-out value and whether other rules exist that are triggered by that value.

What are the different types of type conversions explain with examples? ›

In computer science, type conversion, type casting, type coercion, and type juggling are different ways of changing an expression from one data type to another. An example would be the conversion of an integer value into a floating point value or its textual representation as a string, and vice versa.

What is the best way to convert metric units? ›

To convert from one unit to another within the metric system usually means moving a decimal point. If you can remember what the prefixes mean, you can convert within the metric system relatively easily by simply multiplying or dividing the number by the value of the prefix.

What metric system does the US use? ›

The International System of Units (SI), the modern form of the metric system, is preferred for many uses by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

How do you calculate conversion equivalent units? ›

Equivalent units. are calculated by multiplying the number of physical (or actual) units on hand by the percentage of completion of the units. If the physical units are 100 percent complete, equivalent units will be the same as the physical units.

Why do we convert measure from one unit to another? ›

In order to have accuracy and avoid confusion in measurement, we need to convert one unit to another. For instance, we do not measure the length of a pencil in kilometres. In such a case, one has to convert kilometre (km) to centimetre (cm).

Which can be used to convert units across different measurement systems? ›

In summary, you investigated different ways to use dimensional analysis in order to solve problems that require you to convert measurement units between U.S. customary units and metric/SI units. Dimensional analysis works because you multiply a given quantity times a unit rate that is equal to 1.


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